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4.2 Remarkable Body: Digestion and Absorption

February 28, 2020


– WELCOME TO THE SECOND SECTION
ON THE REMARKABLE BODY. THIS SECTION IS GOING
TO COVER DIGESTION ABSORPTION. WE’RE GOING TO START
WITH THE MOUTH, AND WE TALKED
ABOUT THIS IN THE LAST VIDEO WHERE THE SALIVARY
GLAND RELEASES ENZYMES WHICH DO START THE CHEMICAL
PROCESS OF DIGESTION. BUT WE ALSO HAVE
A MECHANICAL PROCESS OF DIGESTION WHICH IS
THAT CHEWING AND CRUSHING. SO TAKING THE FOOD AND BREAKING
IT DOWN INTO SMALLER PARTS. THEN THE CHEMICAL PART
OF DIGESTIONS, THOSE ENZYMES START TO WORK, AND THIS IS WHERE CARBOHYDRATE
DIGESTION ACTUALLY STARTS. AND THIS IS FROM,
LIKE I SAID, FROM THE SALIVA
AND IT’S DIGESTING THAT STARCH. REMEMBER I TALKED ABOUT THIS,
I MENTIONED THIS EARLIER, IF YOU TAKE A REALLY
REFINED CARBOHYDRATE SUCH AS A SALTINE CRACKER AND YOU PUT IT INTO YOUR MOUTH
AND YOU CHEW. YOU DON’T SWALLOW YET BUT YOU CHEW AND CHEW AND CHEW
UNTIL IT COMES INTO A PASTE. YOU’LL ACTUALLY NOTICE THAT IT
BECOMES SWEET BECAUSE STARCH WILL ACTUALLY START TO BREAKDOWN
INTO SUGAR IN THE MOUTH. NOW, IF YOU’RE CHEWING
REALLY QUICKLY AND YOU SWALLOW FIRST BEFORE
IT GETS TO THAT POINT A LOT OF TIMES YOU
WON’T NOTICE THAT. BUT NEXT TIME YOU HAVE
THE OPPORTUNITY TRY THAT OUT AND SEE IF YOU
CAN NOTICE THE SUGAR. THE FOOD IS THEN
GOING TO TRAVEL FROM THE MOUTH THROUGH THE ESOPHAGUS. THERE’S NO REAL DIGESTION
THAT HAPPENS HERE. REMEMBER DIGESTION
IS THE BREAKDOWN OF FOOD INTO THE
INDIVIDUAL NUTRIENTS. SO IT’S MORE JUST A TRAVEL, IT MOVES THROUGH WHAT’S
CALLED LIKE PARASTOSIS. THAT’S HOW IT MOVES FROM THE
MOUTH DOWN TO THE STOMACH. THIS IS THE STOMACH RIGHT HERE. AND WITH THE STOMACH
WE HAVE THE– WHICH IS RIGHT HERE. THE MAIN FUNCTION IS THAT
IT GRINDS AND CHURNS, SO THINK OF ALMOST LIKE YOUR
WASHING MACHINE WHERE YOU’RE WASHING CLOTHES WHERE IT’S
BEING GRINDED AND CHURNING. AND IT ACTUALLY IS
BEING TURNED INTO THIS TASTE WHICH
IS CALLED CHYME. ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT
FUNCTIONS OF THE STOMACH THOUGH IS THAT PROTEIN
DIGESTION STARTS, AND IT’S BECAUSE IT
RELEASES AN ACID. IT’S CALLED
HYDROCHLORIC ACID AND IT BRINGS THIS PH DOWN
TO A LEVEL OF TWO. SO THIS IS A VERY
PH AND THAT LOW PH WILL ACTUALLY UNCOIL PROTEIN. NOW, WE HAVEN’T REALLY
GONE OVER PROTEIN YET, BUT PROTEIN IS VERY
COMPLEX MACRONUTRIENT COMPARED TO FAT IN CARBOHYDRATE. SO IT REALLY NEEDS TO
UNCOIL AND UNFOLD FIRST. NOW, THAT PH IS SO ACID, SO LOW PH ACIDIC IT
WILL BURN OTHER TISSUES. AND WE’LL TALK ABOUT ALL THIS
CONTRIBUTES TO HEARTBURN NEXT. BUT THE STOMACH ACTUALLY
PROTECTS ITSELF. IT PROTECTS THE LINE SORT OF
BY HAVING THIS MUCOUS COATING. AND THAT’S HOW
THE STOMACH LINING IS PROTECTED FROM
THIS VERY LOW PH. NOW, ONCE THE FOOD
TRAVELS FROM THE STOMACH IT WILL THEN GO INTO
THE SMALL INTESTINE. SO THESE ARE THE
SMALL INTESTINES. NOW, THE SMALL INTESTINES
ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT ORGAN IN DIGESTION
AND ABSORPTION. THE REASON IS THAT MOST OF
THE PROCESS HAS OCCURRED. SO WE HAVE STARCH DIGESTION
STARTS IN THE MOUTH, AND A LITTLE BIT SOME FO YOUR
FAT DIGESTION MAY OCCUR TO THE SMALL EXTENT IN THE MOUTH,
BUT MOSTLY STARCH. AND MOST EVERYTHING
HALTS IN THE STOMACH EXCEPT THAT PROTEIN IS UNCOILED. SO PROTEIN DIGESTION
STARTS IN THE STOMACH. BUT NOW DIGESTION OF
ALL OUR MACRONUTRIENTS, SO REMEMBER THOSE ARE FATS,
PROTEIN, AND CARBOHYDRATE. ALL OF THOSE ARE NOW HAVE GONE
THROUGH A MECHANICAL DIGESTION. SO IT’S BREAKING DOWN
THROUGH A MECHANICAL PROCESS OF CHEWING AND
GRINDING IN THE MOUTH, AND THEN CHURNING
IN THE STOMACH. AND NOW THE ENZYMES FROM
THE SMALL INTESTINES, AS WELL AS THE PANCREAS,
WILL NOW BREAK APART THOSE LARGER MOLECULES
INTO SMALLER MOLECULES. SO WE’RE GOING FROM
DIGESTING FROM A FOOD PRODUCT TO
INDIVIDUAL NUTRIENTS. THE SECOND PART IS
ALSO VERY IMPORTANT, AND THIS IS THE ABSORPTION. SO REMEMBER ABSORPTION,
WHEN WE THINK ABOUT ABSORPTION THIS IS THE TRANSFER
ESSENTIALLY OF THOSE INDIVIDUAL NUTRIENTS FROM THE
INTESTINES INTO THE BLOODSTREAM. SO IT’S BRINGING THOSE
NUTRIENTS INTO THE BODY, THAT’S ABSORPTION. DIGESTION, THE BREAKDOWN OF FOOD
INTO NUTRIENTS, ABSORPTION, TAKING THOSE NUTRIENTS FROM
THE INTESTINES INTO THE BODY. SO THAT’S WHY DIGESTION
AND ABSORPTION MOSTLY HAPPEN IN THE INTESTINES,
AND THE INTESTINES IS REALLY OUR MOST IMPORTANT ORGAN IN
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION. NOW THE PANCREAS RELEASES
BOTH CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEIN, AND FAT
DIGESTING ENZYMES BREAKING CARBOHYDRATE
DOWN TO SIMPLE SUGARS, PROTEINS INTO AMINO ACIDS,
AND FATS TO FATTY ACIDS. AND WE’RE GOING TO
GO THROUGH EACH OF THOSE PROCESSES WHEN
WE COVER EACH OF THOSE MACRONUTRIENTS IN
THE UPCOMING CHAPTER. NOW, THE LIVER HAS A LOT
OF FUNCTIONS IN THE BODY, AND WE’LL GET INTO
THAT ESPECIALLY NEXT WEEK WHEN WE TALK ABOUT
CARBOHYDRATES. AS FAR AS DIGESTION AND
ABSORPTION’S CONCERNED, THE LIVER MAKES BILE. AND THEN THE GALLBLADDER
IS ACTUALLY– SO THE LIVER’S HERE. THE GALLBLADDER, SEE THIS TINY
LITTLE GREEN AREA RIGHT HERE, THIS IS THE GALLBLADDER. IT STORES AND RELEASES BILE. BILE AIDS IN FAT
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION. IT’S AN EMULSIFIER, SO IT REALLY HELPS BRING THAT
FAT INTO A LIQUID ENVIRONMENT, ALLOWS THE ENZYMES
TO WORK ON THE FAT BETTER TO BREAK IT
DOWN INTO FATTY ACIDS, AND ASSISTS IN THE
ABSORPTION PROCESS. SO THIS IS IMPORTANT. BILE HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH
PROTECTING THE STOMACH LINING, SO MUCOUS PROTECTS
THE STOMACH LINING FROM THAT VERY
ACIDIC ENVIRONMENT. BILE AIDS IN FAT
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION. SO LASTLY, WE HAVE
THE COLON HERE. SO THESE ARE THE
SMALL INTESTINES, THEN WE HAVE THE COLON. THE COLON MAINLY
ABSORBS WATER AND IT’S GOING TO ABSORB
SOME MINERALS. NOW, A LOT OF MINERALS ARE ABSORBED IN THE
SMALL INTESTINES, BUT WHATEVER REMAINING MINERALS
WILL BE ABSORBED IN THE COLON. AND THEN FIBER, ALTHOUGH
IT’S NOT DIGESTED– AND WE’LL TALK ABOUT THIS NEXT WEEK WHEN WE COVER
CARBOHYDRATES. BUT FIBER MOSTLY PASSES
THROUGH UNDIGESTED IN THE BODY, BUT SMALL AMOUNTS OF FIBER,
THE SMALL FRAGMENTS, WILL BE A LITTLE BIT
DIGESTIVE AND THAT’S MAINLY BY THE BACTERIA THAT
EXIST WITHIN THE COLON. AND THAT IS GOING TO
BE ALL FOR THIS SECTION ON DIGESTION
AND ABSORPTION.  

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