Chapter 2 Lecture G   Carbohydrates
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Chapter 2 Lecture G Carbohydrates

October 11, 2019


This is Chapter 2 Lecture G on
Carbohydrates and we know that the rest of this chapter now is on organic compounds. Organic compounds remember are large compounds and these large
compounds are going to be covalently bonded and the first
one that we’re going to talk about here is carbohydrates. Now before we talk
about carbohydrates this wonder picture of The Wonder Bread
here’s an example of carbohydrate a carbohydrate that we like pasta is
carbohydrate for example. All of these large macromolecules that we have whether
they are carbohydrates or whether they are
proteins or whether they are lipids or nucleic acids they can all be broken down into smaller
units and the smaller units are broken down by hydrolysis. We talked about hydrolysis in a previous mini lecture and so the opposite of that then remember would be dehydration synthesis. So this slide is showing examples
of carbohydrates: sugars and starches. So things like glucose would of course be an example of a carbohydrate: fructose. A lot of times these carbohydrates are
going to end in -ose – that’s not always the case but a lot
of them do. Other starches like glycogen is one example of one that does not and with -ose
but then there is cellulose which is in plant material and it ends with -ose as well so there are
large polymers and there are also monomers so we have
large examples of them and smaller examples of them. So they contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen and they’re usually in
this they’re always going to be in this ratio
so for example glucose is C6 H12O6 and what this means is that
there’s going to be twice as much hydrogen is there is
oxygen and carbon. So you need to be aware for the test
examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides and also polysaccharides. So we’re going to go through those examples of
these monosaccharides, disaccharaides, and
polysaccharides examples of monosaccharides that you should
be aware of are things like deoxyribose, glucose. Glucose is what we need to use as fuel so
everything is broken down into glucose in our body. There’s disaccharides things like sucrose is a double sugar and then large polysaccharides that we
have with the things like glycogen. So this is a large table and I understand it might
be quite overwhelming to it first so what you need to do when you on look
at this table is look at one column at a time so first
among the talk about carbohydrates they are hydrated carbons they had twice
as much hydrogen as oxygen and these carbohydrates are useful are two different purposes (e.g.
signaling molecules) and this page number here I don’t believe applies to your newest
additions a kind of ignore that but there’s a chart on carbohydrates that’s
in this chapter but what’s important to know is the
examples of polysaccharides. The two that you need to know are glycogen and starch. Disaccharides are the double sugars – you need to
know sucrose, lactose and maltose and this diagram here is showing the example of dehydration synthesis to put two smaller molecules together in this case
glucose and fructose to make sucrose. The opposite of that would
be hydrolysis when water is used to cut a bond, In this case sucrose is broken down
into glucose and fructose and these are five examples
of monosaccharides that you should be aware of: ribose and deoxyribose are
specialized sugars that are found in DNA so this bottom one right here would
be de- oxy ribose and its part of DNA. So this is an enlargement of the previous
slide little easier to see but it’s the Figure that
you have in your book and you need to be aware of again the fact that dehydration
synthesis is used and hydrolysis is used not only for carbohydrates but they’re also used for
lipids they’re also used for proteins and their used for nucleic acids. Now these five chemicals that I’ve just
written up here – these chemical classifications carbohydrates lipids proteins and nucleic acids these are the
four large molecules that we have in our bodies for main
macromolecules so I want you to notice in this table in column number one is the
carbohydrates column two is the lipids, column three
proteins and column four is nucleic acids and the way I have organized this table is
that we start with in all cases we have polymers polymers are many many units they could be carbohydrates, lipids,
proteins and nucleic acids but they have much smaller examples of monomers so the the polymers are
here the complex molecules the glycogen in the case lipids
triglycerides DNA in the case of nucleic acids but then we
also had the simplest form the monomers so the top at this table is descriptions
about each of them that you should know and the bottom is showing the
organization from largest molecules to the smallest molecules
which you we see down here at the bottom of this
table so in this slide we could we could use dehydration synthesis to describe two you fatty acids that are put together to make a larger fat – that would be
dehydration synthesis we can also use the example of proteins where there’s two amino acids (the
building blocks for proteins) that are put together to make a larger protein and then this
applies for carbohydrates as well and then hydrolysis is just the opposite
of this so again let’s say that we have we have the sucrose molecule here sucrose is an example of a disaccharide and water is used to
split the sucrose into fructose and also glucose which is the example
that you have below at the bottom of the slide (letter C) so monosaccharides are our main sources of
fuel this is sort of on that table as well so
I won’t spend a lot of time on it but you should know that
glucose is used as the major cellular fuel all that we have so everything has to be broken down into
glucose to be used to make ATP structural molecules are also
a characteristic of carbohydrates so ribose is in RNA you don’t have to know
the specific formulas for these just know that there’s twice as many hydrogen atoms as we have carbon or oxygen so this next slide here is showing
examples of these we have our monosaccharides here glucose, fructose, galactose and then
deoxyribose and ribose again you don’t have to know
the structures just the names of them and what would be a monosaccharide what would be a disaccharide. Disaccharides
would be sucrose, maltose and lactose and the polysaccharides would be things
like glycogen and then cellulose now there are
specific animations that describe each of these and they are located in your Study Area of Mastering A&P so this is very important to watch these
separate videos to help you understand some of these
concepts

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