Protein Synthesis Animation

October 4, 2019

Protein synthesis is a three-step process
including initiation elongation and termination in bacteria such as E. coli initiation requires
three small proteins called initiation factors are you have one I have two and I have three
as one is the first tRNA the mRNA and the small ribosomal subunit also called the three
as subunit I have three readily binds to the small ribosomal subunit and its presents blocks
the large and small subunits from prematurely associating I have three facilitates the binding
of the mRNA to the small subunit of the ribosomal binding occurs just 4 to 8 bases upstream
of the AUG start work consensus sequence called the shine down, no sequence in the mRNA unveils
new the end of the 16 as ribosomal RNA in the small ribosomal subunit I have won binds
to the small subunit location called the a side were incoming tRNA is normally bind the
first tRNA called an form of Feyenoord tRNA thus is another side called the piece site
know that the initiator tRNA has been escorted to the piece site by AIF to which is bound
to GTP are high-energy molecules similar to ATP the anti-codon of the tRNA is complementary
to the AUG start codon once the initiator tRNA is in place I have three is released
with the loss of IAF three the 50 as subunit can talk on the 30 as subunit the docking
of the 50 as subunit triggers the hydrolysis of GTP RIF two and the subsequent release
of the initiation factors ribosomal is now ready for elongation elongation involves the
reputation of three steps first and elongation factor called TFT you associated with GTP
binds to free charged amino a salty RNAs this complex area is the a or acceptor site correct
selection of the tRNA complex depends mainly on codon and he codon pairing in this example
the end he codon CCC pairs with the GGG codon the tRNA carries the amino acid lysine in
the second step the ribosomes O transferase activity catalyses the formation of a peptide
bond between the new amino acid in the a side in the previous amino acid in the piece site
simultaneously GTP is hydrolysed and the resulting EFP UGDP is expelled the third step is called
translocation and elongation factor called EFG associated with GTP binds to the ribosomal
the GTP is hydrolysed providing the energy to ratchet of the DS and three subunits ahead
one codon this manoeuvre opens up the A-side and slightly uncharged tRNA into the last
side called the EU or exit site the next amino way so tRNA the is the A-side creates a conformational
change in the ribosomal the telegraphs through to the Eastside and Ajax the uncharged tRNA
these elongation steps repeat along the mRNA ribosomes of E. coli can speed through these
elongation steps working together 16 amino acids per second eventually ribosomal lives
of the end of the coding region marked by one of three stop codons this stage of translation
is called termination no corresponding tRNAs exist. Codon is instead a protein called a
release factor either one or RF two which has the general shape of the tRNA mimics a
tRNA and errors the A-side the release factor activates the O transferase function of the
ribosomal which cuts the ball and tethering the completed peptide to tRNA in the piece
site another factor called RF three then triggers are of one or RF 2 to depart the ribosomal
finally another factor, ribosomal recycling factor or RF along with EFG bind to the A-side
and the accompanying GTP hydrolysis and arts that two ribosomal subunits I have three then
we associate with a three as subunit preventing the 50 as an three subunits from coming together
again the liberated ribosomal subunits are now free to diffuse through the cell ready
to bind yet another mRNA and begin the translation sequence of a new.

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