Vitamin B12 – The Brain Vitamin
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Vitamin B12 – The Brain Vitamin

October 1, 2019

Hello everyone I’m Dr. Jim Daily and we’re
here for our monthly training at Daily manufacturing and we’re glad you’re
listening to this either live or on YouTube we are available both ways now I
want to point out that YouTube will be there any time you want to see us you
can go 24/7 I would encourage you to sign up with YouTube to our channel so
that you can get notifications and you’ll know what’s coming up every month
we encourage you to share the YouTube videos with friends you can send them a
link to them if you think they’ll benefit from them but we’re going to
make this available for as many people who would like to as would like to see
it now I want to tell you before we get into our main talk about a couple of
products every month I want to show some of the new products to you so I’ll grab
a couple here this is one of the newer products it’s our flax seed oil now flax
seed oil is a vegetable oil that’s rich in omega-3 fatty acids one of the few of
them and it is a very good oil to use in fact the only two oils I really like
that much for most people are flax oil olive oil and for some people coconut
oil those three oils are pretty good but the flax oil in the olive oil
particularly the flax oil because of the oil setter anthe omega-3 fatty acids
the reason olive oil is good is not because of the oils in it really but if
you get the dark green olive oil it’s got a lot of good bioactive compounds in
it so I like those two oils now the coconut oil works good for some people
because of the medium chain triglycerides in it that has some
special benefits the other product I want to point out is our new ageless
brain and it is based on a lot of good
research that supports the nutrients in here for brain function and I really
encourage you to take a look at that product it does include the ingredients
that we’re talking about today that I didn’t maybe 12 and methylfolate which
we’ll briefly talk about now today’s talk is kind of different because I
really encourage people to eat a plant-based diet but there are some
things you have to be careful with with a plant-based diet and the subject I’m
talking about today vitamin b12 is one of those you really have to watch it if
you’re a vegetarian or a vegan because it’s easy to become deficient in it so I
want you to just know right up front I’m not saying that you shouldn’t need a
plant-based diet I in fact I’m a vegetarian myself but I do say watch out
for b12 because it can have some pretty profound effects if you’re deficient in
it in fact I decided to look up other day
what some really smart scientists might have said about nutrition so I looked at
Percy if Albert Einstein had anything to say about it actually he did nothing
will benefit human health and increase the chances for survival of life on
Earth as much as the evolution to a vegetarian diet ok that’s Albert
Einstein I’m not gonna argue with him he’s pretty smart smarter than me but
having said that keep in mind that I’m a vegetarian I encourage other people to
be vegetarians but I am trying to teach you a little bit about what you have to
watch out for if you are a vegetarian and how to be healthy as a vegetarian so
with that we’ll take a quick break and get right into our topic for today okay okay
our topic today is vitamin b12 and I’m calling it the brain vitamin now it’s
really more than a brain vitamin but that’s what we’re putting the greatest
emphasis on today and you’ll understand why as we go through this question how
are you feeling are you feeling energetic are you having a sharp mind
quick wit or are you tired depressed forgetful and maybe you’re all those
latter things even though you’ve changed to a healthy diet and lifestyle so if
you’re up there and you’re feeling energetic all the time sharp mind quick
wit well you may not need this talk so much however you still might want to
watch it because you might know somebody that does need it so let’s keep going
here even for you people out there how about any of these symptoms depression
our mood impairment irritability insomnia cognitive slowing your
cognition your mental clarity forgiveness dementia psychosis visual
disturbances peripheral sensory deficits weakness impaired position sense
impaired vibration sense a shock like sensation that radiates to your feet
ataxia which is you know not being able to walk or move well not good muscle
control abnormal deep tension – reflexes and restless leg syndrome that’s just
interesting a lot of people have that but these are all symptoms of vitamin
b12 deficiency now that doesn’t mean necessarily if you
have one of these at your b12 deficient because there’s other things that cause
these symptoms as well but b12 is something you might want to look at if
you don’t have an explanation for some of these symptoms you could have a
vitamin b12 deficiency if you have symptoms like that and that is something
that’s really worth considering let me read you a story I don’t read often when
I’m doing this but I will today and I’ve modified this slightly just so I won’t
be in finishing on somebody else’s writing but this came off the internet
and it’s only slightly modified mostly to get rid of the names and to clean up
the English just a bit actually but here we go and this is a woman writing from
up in the northeastern part of the United States that late August morning
as I filled out my paper worked as a new patient and got to this section where
you can write down your concerns that you want to speak to the doctor about it
was like I was writing a novel I was surprised at the length of the bulleted
list after rereading what I had written the way I felt physically and mentally
that day apathetic agitated low energy lethargic I felt I needed to lay
everything out there and so she did during the initial exam with the nurse J
before seeing the doctor she randomly assured me that dr. M was very thorough
well two days later I received a call from dr. M herself as I was walking
across the street from my office to get to them some morning coffee she told me
I was profoundly b12 deficient and that you will be feeling much better in a few
weeks she prescribed to me to start a series of muscular injections
immediately one shot a day for four consecutive days
and then once a month and then we she said we did assess whether or not I
needed to keep taking them after briefly explaining how this finding made me
since given the multitude of symptoms I felt a huge sense of relief
I remember thinking in a moment standing in the blustery in New York sunshine
finally maybe somebody really discovered what’s wrong with me my thing referring
to all knowing gut feeling that there was something bigger something deeper
wrong within me a feeling I’ve always had but could never prove from the first
chance I had to Google about this new finding I was continually amazed at what
I was discovering as they read various articles and snippets I would always
think that so me referring to symptoms or ailments that is a direct result of
b12 deficiency tingling numbness in hands legs feet loss of memory never
feeling refreshed after adequate sleep lack of concentration and focus foggy
brain chronic fatigue chronic low energy depression soreness of breath
incontinence weird bouts of constipation and diarrhea bleeding gums Geographic
and occasional sore tongue trouble keeping balance often seems that seemed
seeming as a clumsiness my legs giving out from under me with no explanation
and more that would be discovered over time she was really having a hard time
and fortunately she found the answer a few people have asked me if the
injections hurt they gave me mine in my arm and was not painful at all maybe a
bit sore later on in fact the first three injections I did not feel at all
from the b12 deficiency I had significantly lost sensitivity to even
being able to feel a shot being given I can tell you I do not have that b12 much
of my b12 deficiency I know shots I was shocked at the difference when I
received my fourth shot of being able to feel the needle where before I felt
nothing from my first injection each day I remember feeling different and
experiencing odd things in new ways even within a week of my first injection I
was a completely different person from my energy levels my sleeping my legs not
hurting mental clarity and just overall feeling of wellness I was amazed that
what I was experienced prior to the injection wasn’t normal because it is
seemed normal for me I couldn’t remember feeling any other way and there’s more
to the story and but we’ll stop right there you know this woman had lived her
whole life suffering with b12 deficiency as it turned out she had something
called pernicious anemia and we’ll talk a little bit about how that works
basically it’s a type of anemia that results from not being able to absorb
vitamin b12 and and we’ll talk about that down the road here in this talk in
just a minute so oh I’m going the wrong direction sorry about that let’s talk
about b12 and why it’s important first of all we are made up and if you look at
the chart here we’re 80 percent carbon by dry weight if you take you know all
the water out of us what’s left it’s mostly carbon eighty percent of it well
as it turns out vitamin b12 utilizes carbon it’s what makes carbon
work for us it takes these carbon atoms and builds things in the body and that’s
where we get an awful lot of the things that make us work
you’ve heard of s-adenosylmethionine or Sam II well Sam II is a universal donor
of the carbon groups methyls we call them
they’re absolutely required for life and it’s what it’s a major role of vitamin
b12 to make these high-energy carbons and you can see on the right here the
methyl group b12 puts it there that’s what it does and then this molecule can
donate it to other molecules and build things like your neurotransmitters
proteins that make up your muscles lots of different things so there’s very few
systems in the body that are not vitamin b12 dependent and this is just the sort
of illustration of the single carbon mat metabolism that b12 is involved with and
it basically takes carbons or methyl groups from things like amino acids
taurine choline betting goes through this process that involves folate it
also involves niacin b6 several things vitamins are in there but really the
really crucial ones in this process that you have to watch out for the b12 and
also the folate which is involved right near the very first of it here so these
are the crucial elements for making these different molecules now when we
take vitamin b12 it goes through a process and we can look at this you we
eat vitamin b12 and folic acid in our diets or we take them as supplements
they go to our stomach right here and you see intrinsic factor well that’s the
key molecule it’s a glycoprotein that binds to V b12
vitamin b12 and it stays attached to it all the way through the small intestine
– right till the end and then it helps transport vitamin b12 across the mucosal
barrier of the gut and then it’s absorbed and it can travel through the
blood and go to the liver that stores it they’ll go to all the different tissues
well the woman I just read about who is had pernicious anemia what that disease
is it’s a genetic disease in which the person does not produce intrinsic factor
that’s produces anemia and this results in a very profound type of anemia it can
take a long time to develop sometimes but it’s very very serious in fact
people die from that disease if it doesn’t get diagnosed that woman I were
reading about she was very fortunate to have survived as long as she did with
pernicious anemia without it being diagnosed it’s it’s that serious of a
disease but she was had a very low quality of life because nobody caught it well what about the brain in vitamin b12
deficiency the entire body relies on b12 not just the brain have to make that
clear however the brain is where the deficiency symptoms show up first and
that’s why she was having all those feelings of lethargy have no energy of
can’t concentrate because the brain seems to be where it has to for those
show up the quickest because it’s highly reliant on b12 to make the
neurotransmitters those are very important
b12 dependent process and also for making new brain cells although that
happens a little bit more slowly the neurotransmitters if they don’t have b12
they don’t get made right away and you really start having depression
no energy left RG you can’t concentrate because you can’t make those
neurotransmitters in the brain your brain doesn’t function now also we know
that there’s a number of reasons why you can become vitamin b12 deficient here we
see that brain levels of vitamin b12 really decrease with aging and that’s
something you’ve got to really watch for because if you look over here at these
charts this is showing people who are 20 years old and the b12 levels in the
blood 21 to 40 you’re seeing a lot of them decreasing at 41 to 60 and by the
time you get 61 to 80 you know you got a real huge cluster with very low vitamin
b12 we see the same kind of linear pattern for methyl cobalamin one of the
forms of b12 that’s really important you know steeply declining with age the
other graphs are a little bit hard to read but they show the same pattern so
we see from this study that people as they age can pretty consistently but not
universally have a sharp decline in b12 levels and that’s overall that’s not
just vegetarians that’s people in general so that’s something that you
have to be aware of that age really does affect your b12 levels and if they go
down you know a lot of other things go with it one of the important things that
you have to look for is homocysteine and a lot of you have heard about homeless
cysteine because it’s a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and people make
supplements for lowering homocysteine with b12 folate and b6 usually lists are
combined I would probably add nice and in there as well
however homocysteine does more than just cause you to have
elevated risk of cardiovascular disease it’s a non protein amino acid a homolog
of cysteine and it’s what happens is in that pathway where I showed you a minute
ago that b12 is functioning to donate those carbons
if the b12 gets low it doesn’t complete that pattern and homocysteine is part of
that cycle that I showed you and that will become elevated and that was very
very dangerous to your body almost this thing can be recycled to methionine but
it has to have b12 and folate to do it so that’s why you really run into
problems with homocysteine very quickly now what are some of the we’ll talk
about folate for just a minute and not for long because it works hand in hand
with b12 what causes folate deficiency well same things pretty much that cause
vitamin b12 deficiency although it’s not vegetarian diet that’s exception they
share it’s actually get quite a bit of folate usually but poor diet Crohn’s
disease celiac disease anything that affects your intestinal tract like that
but also genetic defects different ones from the ones that affect b12 oral
contraceptives can lower it alcohol lowers folate so that’s important also
there’s a lot of emphasis right now on the forma full let you get methylfolate
versus folic acid folic acid is much less expensive and it does work somewhat
but methylfolate is the active form of the b9 or the folate often sold as folic
acid is the oxidized form that has to be reduced in what we call a reduction
reaction which is the opposite of oxidized reaction
and it has to be converted in four steps and often people don’t make that
conversion very well so that’s why the Foley methylfolate like we sell is much
better for some people for other people it may not make is much different but
there again like all your activated b-vitamins some people can make those
conversions better than others and for some it’s very important to get the
activated forms folate deficiencies you see in the neural tube defects and mega
plastic anemia which is the same as the b12 pernicious anemia actually elevated
homocysteine just like with b12 all these things that you see in there are
similar symptoms of b12 and folate deficiency now let’s go back to the
brain and b12 brain apathy and cognitive decline was studied in what they called
the vitae cog study they showed that they could lower brain shrinkage over
time by 53 percent by giving the subjects folic acid in this case vitamin
b6 and vitamin b12 and this was a longitudinal study and this was in
people the supplement lowered homocysteine by
32% and they found that it slowed brain stroke he’s there again by about 50% or
a little better and cognitive decline was slowed and those people as well
one of the interesting things was and it’s a little bit hard to see from here
but you can see where the people are dropping off way over here on cognitive
tests you had to reach a threshold of brain matter loss before it really
mattered you could lose quite a bit of brain you have quite a bit of brain
shrinkage without being any effect as far as the cognition was concerned but
the damage was being done anyway and so a lot of times they were pointing out
that studies for a year or two don’t show any benefits of vitamin b12
and folate on brain function but they were saying it takes a lot longer than
that before you’ll see that in the brain function studies you have the damage
occurring but you won’t see the difference in the people as far as their
cognitive ability until much further down the road now this was another most
hot-off-the-press recent article and American Journal of
Clinical Nutrition female patients aged 50 to 80 with mild cognitive impairments
were studied the MCI patients had low normal b12 and showed a significantly
poorer learning ability the mild cognitively impaired MCI also lower
recognition performance and very significant compared to people with high
B vitamin b12 also the microstructure of the hippocampus was lower in patients
with low normal b12 now remember we’re talking about low normal not deficient
in this compared with people with high it was making a difference if the people
had high levels of b12 versus what would be considered on a diagnostic test as
normal but in the lower normal range so there’s a difference between normal and
optimal with a lot of things on these tests you’ll find that with vitamin D
with vitamin b12 and a lot of things you may be in a quote normal range but if
you’re on the lower end of that range you’re still having some problems as a
result and that’s what they were seeing here is that patients who were low
normal had were having brain loss and cognitive impairment compared to those
with high b12 well what about the symptoms would be 12
deficiency well many apply to folate as well but
what you’ll really see a lot of times is red blood cell disorders neurological
disorders like we’ve talked about changes in mucosa of the digestive tract
and that may be what’s causing the b12 deficiency as well 75 to 90 percent of
the people with functional b12 deficiency have neurological disorders
and that’s a huge interesting the more severe the neurological disorders the
less severe the blood cell disorder for some reason nobody quite understands
that but anyway that was something that they pointed out the most common
neurological symptoms / numbness hands and feet going to sleep and the unsteady
gait and coordination these are things that somebody trying to assess them
could actually observe in these people and you can see here the difference
between a person with a normal brain and one with Alzheimer’s disease they’re
actually having loss of brain matter in these patients you can see on the one
over here quite at the bit of the brain is actually gone and and that can be you
know pretty profound effect but as we said learn or you can have quite a bit
of loss over there before the cognitive effects start showing up now let’s talk
about the aging brain a little bit because we all know that as we get older
you know sometimes we get more forgetful or something and maybe some of that’s
normal maybe some of it’s not but people seem to sort of consistently have
cognitive loss as they age people who are really sharp at an older age they
may have just been sharper to start with however the progression of cognitive
loss can be mitigate and minimized the other thing that we
have with b12 in the central nervous system which includes the brain and
spinal column is we all know about neural tube defects in infants this
happens very early on and folate we’ve talked about a lot in that regard but
b12 can be a problem there too and it’s a very devastating neurological disorder
that affects children Pro family for the rest of their lives if they have them
however it happens in women very early before many of them even know they’re
pregnant so it’s really important to have good vitamin b12 and folic acids or
folate status if there’s any possibility of becoming pregnant and I just wanted
to throw that in there because it is of such importance that you know you really
need to to pay attention to that so let’s talk about just sort of single
carbon metabolism which involves b12 folate also that we said nice and in b6
and just sort of boil it down in a nutshell well the major function of
vitamin b12 and folate er provide those high energy carbons we talked about both
are common deficiencies in humans deficiency disturbs brain heart gut a
lot of different systems vegetarians tend to be okay and folate but often
deficient in b12 however almost anyone who can be deficient in both of them and
supplements are both are probably the best way to obtain them for very many
people and just a little cartoon there you know she’s saying that age has it as
as it said who age has its advantages too bad I don’t remember what they are
so you know that comes with age to some extent but we know we can prevent a lot
of that now let’s talk about brain pain from b12 deficiency well what causes it
well we know pretty well what causes it but what can
prevent it and can a healthy diet supply adequate b12 for everyone
what about traditional vegetarians you know there are people in the world who
have for thousands of years been vegetarians and eating vegetarian diets
people like the Hindus in India are vegetarians Buddhists many Buddhists are
vegetarians Buddhist priests always are pretty much and yet they seem to be
getting along pretty well well it’s difficult though to find a population of
people that are traditionally total vegan you know Hindus are vegetarians
the Buddhist priests are vegetarians but they’re not vegans they do get animal
products dairy products do have b12 in them so that’s a source of b12 for those
people even so about 70 percent of the population of India has low b12 status
because the Hindus are all vegetarians at least so a lot of them are not
getting enough now some people think that seaweeds yeast fermented foods
might have the b12 in them well they don’t really to be honest they sometimes
have some similar molecules but so far they haven’t identified any that really
have b12 activity they’re close to b12 in their structure but they’re not b12
and there are no really good documented plant sources of b12 at this time so to
be a total vegan you’re going to have to find your b12 somewhere other than just
the plant foods so let’s move on you can say well what about vegan primates
because all primates rely on b12 the golden lemur who got a picture of there
they’re strictly a fruit eating animal they don’t eat anything else and however
when the National Zoo tried to establish a breeding colony of these golden lemurs
they had a real problem they wouldn’t they wouldn’t reproduce they couldn’t
get baby lemurs from them so that’s a problem if you’re trying to establish a
colony of an animal what they found out is that they get small feed them a small
amount of meat and they could reproduce not a lot but they needed a lover that
b12 what they found out was that even though the lemurs only ate fruit those
particular lemurs they got small amounts of insect worms and things like that
associated with that fruit you know how many have ever bitten into an apple and
found a worm well that’s what’s happening essentially to the lemurs
they’re getting some insects worms things like that in the fruit enough to
give them a little bit of b12 and that keeps them going the zoo of course was
not doing that they were making sure they had very pristine nice fruit for
them with no worms or bugs cleaned it up well and actually that wasn’t what they
needed well also some other things that happen with vitamin b12 there’s a number
of drugs that can really be a problem for you another reason why you could be
eating a lot of meat and not getting your b12
proton proton pump inhibitors prilosec prevacid nexium actually interfere with
b12 absorption the acid is needed in the stomach for the to dissociate the b12
from what it’s attached to in the foods and allowed to bind to intrinsic factor
without the acid there it’s in trouble it can’t be a sword it can’t bind to the
intrinsic factor you don’t get it and as this can do the same thing also don’t
know the mechanism of this for sure but researchers found out that
about 40% of type 2 diabetics who are using metformin are b12 deficient now
you know metformin is a very common any diabetic drug people take it even when
they’re not diabetic you know if a lot of people are started on metformin when
they’re in a pre-diabetic stage to help them regulate blood sugar better however
a lot of those people are becoming vitamin b12 deficient that’s a
particular problem for diabetics because you know if you’re becoming vitamin b12
deficient then you’re going to be making that homeless cysteine homeless cysteine
we saw as a risk factor for brain problems okay in fact a very recent
study showed an experimental animals at least that high homocysteine levels
actually cause these neurofibrillary tangles from tile proteins in the brain
to form that’s all they needed it was that high homocysteine and they sort of
spontaneously made those neurofibrillary tangles in the brain so this is a very
big problem these drugs are commonly used in our country many many people and
I can’t imagine that people right here aren’t using something there are
relatives at least of the proton pump inhibitors the ones that decrease the
acid in the stomach or antacids you know chewing on tums or taking the
anti-diabetic drugs like metformin so who’s at the greatest risk of
vegetarians II well older people you know we know that and my age part P
people are very commonly b12 deficient and a lot of times it’s because you
don’t produce acid in the stomach as well when you get older so even without
taking the proton pump inhibitor or the antacids still by the time you
get to be my age you’re probably not producing acid like you should and it’s
gone cause b12 deficiency and a lot of people vegetarian and vegans like we
said and again I really believe in a plant-based diet so I encourage people
to do that however you’ve got to find a way to get your b12 persons with
gastrointestinal diseases consistently have problems with b12 some people have
a greater requirement for b12 than others pregnant women patients with
autoimmune diseases or HIV infection need more b12 than normal people do or
people who do not have those conditions I won’t say they’re not normal persons
under long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors you know these are a
great risk patients with renal disease often have problems with b12 and of
course we know people with pernicious anemia so all of these people and this
encompasses a big part of the population so what be shipped twelve should be used
well there’s a lot of different kinds about saying about Kabbalah means the
least expensive and it works pretty well for a lot of people however it may not
be the ideal form b12 is very large so it’s you can just look at that and see
the size of that molecule large the largest molecule in nature that’s not a
polymer so it’s hard to absorb that’s why you have to have intrinsic factor
but there are several forms of b12 this I know cobalamin hydroxy cobalamin are
two the methyl cobalamin adenosylcobalamin
are the two active forms however and these are your best ones to get methylcobalamin means the most common
form of active b12 it’s active in the cytosol of the cell it predicts
participates in that cell cycle making Sammy we were talking about and it
lowers homocysteine the oxy adenosylcobalamin works a little
differently but it participates in rearrangement reactions and
of amino acids threonine and valine it can sort of detoxify a lot of things
actually it’s involved in metabolizing other methyl groups for instance it’s
important for if you drink methyl alcohol b12 is what detoxifies that and
the reason you can get by with a little bit of methyl alcohol without going
blind it’s because your b12 will take care of it but not not not if you drink
a lot of it you remember in World War two the Sailor strength the torpedo fuel
which was methyl alcohol and they went blind from it you can’t do that your b12
can’t keep up with that but it does involve it can take care of a little bit
of it so which is the best ones to take well this study and you can write that
down if you want to they kind of reviewed that and they concluded that
the active forms the methyl cobalamin and the either high and the additional
cobalamin were really the best ones to take the others are not bad but the two
that they really came up with in their conclusion that you wanted were the two
active forms has been the ideal supplement when you compare the
sublingual or the tablets or capsules or liquids you know if the studies really
teach us that it doesn’t matter the sublingual you can put in your mouth but
it’ll dissolve there and go down your throat and be absorbed just like you
swallowed it so if you have a sublingual tablet you can take it that way or you
can swallow it you know it’s the there’s no difference in the blood levels after
you take it and that’s what this study here was saying that it didn’t matter
which way you took if you’re taking the same amount the blood levels of the b12
were the same so that doesn’t matter and there again they’re showing the
concentrations in the blood of the different forms they just didn’t you
know really there was no significant difference at all their injections will
get it there faster however a Canadian study said over time it really doesn’t
matter either if you’re taking a pretty good high dosage of it you can take b12
because about 1 percent of b12 will be absorbed without the intrinsic factor so
you have to take a much much higher dose of the b12 to get your get where you
need to be but even with pernicious anemia you can take supplements that are
high and that you would need five hundred to a thousand micrograms a day
of it if you have pernicious anemia to force enough through to avoid injections
so that would work well the bottom line for vitamin b12 everyone should be
checked for vitamin b12 deficiency occasionally you know that’s something
you can do a regular routine exam see where it should be
you should check blood levels and methylmalonic acid some people will have
normal blood levels of vitamin b12 and still be deficient and that’s why the
mme ii actually measures the amount that’s functioning in the body so that’s
important most a lot of people will be picked up from rate from the b12 blood
levels but not always so I recommend that you really occasionally have the
MMA test it’s not as convenient it’s more expensive a little bit but it’s
really better so occasionally do that test if very low then you should check
for pernicious anemia and they can test to see if you’re making the intrinsic
factor or not or do the genetic test whether or not you’re able to make it if
that’s if you’re diagnosed with pernicious anemia and you’re really
suffering from it you’d probably get initially a few injections because it’s
gonna get you up quicker in fact you know if you really suffering from
tradition email you go to the doctor’s office and get an injection you’ll know
the difference before the days over it’s that big of a difference really quickly
if marginally low just take the b12 supplements that’s fine but remember
there’s no good plant source for it for it however some people just hate taking
capsules there are foods that you can get that have b12 in and I’ll just show
you you know something like Marmite or Vegemite that’s a British product they
it doesn’t have it in there naturally but they fortify it would be 12
it’s a yeast paste some people like to taste some don’t but you would need to
take about one of these jars a week to get adequate b12 it’s not a very big jar
so you can do it however that’s going to be more expensive really than taking the
supplement so if you don’t mind swallowing a capsule you’re better off
taking something like daily activated b12 this is a large bottle or last you a
long time and it’ll give you plenty of it even if you have pernicious anemia
you’d probably get enough in one capsule a day to keep you adequate in b12 at the
most two capsules a day so that’s the bottom line for b12 if you’re vegan
you’ve got to get V 12 from somewhere and with that will close and I’m glad
everybody joined us today and hope to see you next month

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